Federal law prohibits the possession with intent to sell or distribute obscenity, to send, ship, or receive obscenity, to import obscenity, and to transport obscenity across state borders for purposes of distribution. Although the law does not criminalize the private possession of obscene matter, the act of receiving such matter could violate the statutes prohibiting the use of the U.S. Mails, common carriers, or interactive computer services for the purpose of transportation (See 18 U.S.C. 1460; 18 U.S.C. 1461; 18 U.S.C. 1462; 18 U.S.C. 1463). Convicted offenders face fines and imprisonment. It is also illegal to aid or abet in the commission of these crimes, and individuals who commit such acts are also punishable under federal obscenity laws.
Cognitive theories address the way in which offenders' thoughts affect their behavior. It is well documented that when individuals commit deviant sexual acts, they often try to diminish their feelings of guilt and shame by making excuses or justifications for their behavior and rationalizing their actions (Scott & Lyman, 1968; Scully, 1990; Sykes & Matza, 1957). These excuses, justifications and rationalizations are commonly referred to as \"cognitive distortions\" or \"thinking errors.\" They allow offenders to absolve themselves of responsibility, shame or guilt for their actions. Thinking errors on the part of sex offenders have been identified and supported frequently in research. These errors include denial, minimization of harm done, claiming the right or entitlement to the behavior and blaming the victim (Marshall, Anderson & Fernandez, 1999; Ward & Keenan, 1999). The literature also suggests that many sex offenders hold feelings of resentment and use these feelings as justification for their behaviors. Marshall, Anderson and Champaigne (1997) theorized that sex offenders are more likely to be self-protective and self-serving due to low self-esteem, poor relationships with others and emotional discomfort or anxiety. When challenged about their behavior, sex offenders reframe the situation to maintain feelings of self-worth.
Despite the contributions made by cognitive theories and their use in treatment models, these theories have limitations. First, no method has been identified for connecting in a causal manner what the offender reports about his or her thought processes and a sex offending act itself. Second, cognitive theories do not explain where the cognitive distortion thought processes originate. Third, the research that is available on cognitive theories reflects few differences between sex offenders with cognitive distortions and non-sex offenders with cognitive distortions. In short, cognitive theories do not explain why some individuals commit sexually offensive acts specifically (Stinson, Sales & Becker, 2008).
Using social learning theory, researchers have identified the process through which this learning occurs and the key variables that help to determine whether deviant sexual behavior patterns will be adopted. For example, a child who has internalized the victimization experience as normal or pleasurable in some way is more likely to adopt a belief system that is favorable to offending (Briggs & Hawkins, 1996; Burton, Miller & Schill, 2002; Eisenman, 2000; Freeman-Longo, 1986; Hummel et al., 2000). Several different types of thought patterns may lead more easily to the development of sexually abusive behaviors in victims. For example, the victim may think, \"This must be normal\" or \"It isn't a bad thing because someone who loves me is doing it to me\" or even \"This feels good and I like it\" (Briggs & Hawkins, 1996; Burton, Miller & Schill, 2002; Eisenman, 2000; Freeman-Longo, 1986; Hummel et al., 2000). A child who internalizes these thought processes in reaction to his or her own abuse is more likely to grow into an adult who views sexually abusive acts as less harmful and more pleasurable to the victim.
Studies have identified other factors that can play an important role in the link between being sexually abused and later exhibiting sexually abusive behaviors. These include the age of victimization, the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim, the type of sex act and amount of force used, the sex of the perpetrator, the duration of the abuse and the number of perpetrators (Burton, Miller & Schill, 2002; Garland & Dougher, 1990). The younger the victim, the more violent and intrusive the sexual acts, the longer the duration of abuse and the greater the number of perpetrators, the more likely it is that sexually deviant behavior will develop in victims (Burton, 2000; Burton, Miller & Schill, 2002; Hummel et al., 2000; Seghorn, Prentky & Boucher, 1987).
Marshall and Barbaree suggested that a key developmental task for adolescent boys is to learn to distinguish between sexual impulses and aggression. They argued that this task is difficult because both types of impulses are generated by the same brain structure. Hence, adolescent boys may find it difficult to know when they are angry, sexually aroused or both, and they must learn how to inhibit aggression in sexual situations. Combined with the influx of hormones that occur in adolescence, these factors render the young male vulnerable to developing sex-offending behaviors. Situational factors such as loneliness, social rejection or a loss of a relationship may then trigger the sexually abusive acts committed by adolescents. The more vulnerable a person is to committing a sexual offense, the less intense these situational experiences need to be to trigger sexually aggressive behavior.
Although children can never consent to any sexual activity, we do recognize that there are some sexual behaviors that are developmentally expected and appropriate between children. However, there are other times when a child engages in behavior that involves force, coercion, threats, a significant difference in age, stature, power, developmental ability, or mature sexual acts, which would indicate that the sexual behavior is inappropriate and potentially harmful.
There are several sex behaviors that are NOT normative in preschool children. These include intrusive, planned, or aggressive sex acts, putting their mouth on another child's sex parts, and pretending toys are having sex. Problematic Sexual Behavior
Professionals must keep in mind that adolescents are trying to understand the rapid sexual development of their feelings and bodies. Adolescents may have advanced sexual knowledge and experience but may be well behind in abstract thinking and understanding the impact of their behaviors on others. As adolescents mature, they are able to understand and interpret their own sexual feelings and the emotions and behaviors of others.
Alcohol ReferenceReference to and/or images of alcoholic beverages.Animated Blood Cartoon or pixilated depictions of blood.Blood Depictions of blood.Blood and GoreDepictions of blood or the mutilation of body parts.Cartoon Violence Violent actions involving cartoon-like characters. May include violence where a character is unharmed after the action has been inflicted.Comic MischiefScenes depicting slapstick or gross vulgar humor.Crude Humor Moderately vulgar antics including \"bathroom\" humor.Drug Reference Reference to and/or images of illegal drugs.Edutainment Content of product provides user with specific skills development or reinforcement learning within an entertainment setting. Skill development is an integral part of product.Fantasy Violence Violent actions of a fantasy nature, involving human or non-human characters in situations easily distinguishable from real life.Gambling Betting-like behavior.Informational Overall content of product contains data, facts, resource information, reference materials or instructional text.Intense Violence Graphic and realistic-looking depictions of physical conflict. May involve extreme and/or realistic blood, gore, weapons and depictions of human injury and death.Mature HumorVulgar and/or crude jokes and antics including bathroom humor.Mature Sexual ThemesProvocative material, possibly including partial nudity.Mild LanguageMild references to profanity, sexuality, violence, alcohol or drug use.Mild Lyrics Mild references to profanity, sexuality, violence, alcohol or drug use in music.Mild Violence Mild scenes depicting characters in unsafe and/or violent situations.Nudity Graphic or prolonged depictions of nudity.Partial Nudity Brief and mild depictions of nudity.Sexual Violence Depictions of rape or other sexual acts.Some Adult Assistance May Be NeededEarly Childhood descriptor only Strong Language Profanity and explicit references to sexuality, violence, alcohol or drug use.Strong Lyrics Profanity and explicit references to sexuality, violence, alcohol or drug use in music.Strong Sexual Content Graphic depiction of sexual behavior, possibly including nudity.Suggestive Themes Mild provocative references or materials.Tobacco Reference Reference to and/or images of tobacco products.Use of Drugs The consumption or use of illegal drugs.Use of Alcohol The consumption of alcoholic beverages.Use of Tobacco The consumption of tobacco products.Violence Scenes involving aggressive conflict.
\"Today, we take an important step in empowering survivors across New York to use their voices and hold their abusers accountable,\" Governor Hochul said. \"The fight against sexual assault requires us to recognize the impact of trauma within our justice system. I am proud to sign this legislation, which is part of our collective responsibility to protect one another and create an environment that makes survivors feel safe. While our work is not done, eradicating sexual assault begins with our ability to bring the perpetrators of these heinous acts to justice and this legislation is a historic step forward.\" 59ce067264